By J. Fricke (auth.), Professor Dr. Jochen Fricke (eds.)
This publication comprises the papers offered on the "First foreign Sympo st sium on Aerogels (1 ISA)", held in September 1985 at. the college of Wiirzburg, Fed. Rep. of Germany. It was once the 1st meet.ing of this sort, wit.h contributors from numerous eu count.ries, the us of the US, Canada, South the United States, and Africa. The assembly used to be interdisciplinary, with many of the members being physicists, chemists or fabric scientists ei ther from universities or from commercial learn institutes. permit me try and shed a few mild upon the category of gear the symposium used to be approximately: Aerogels are tremendous porous high-tech fabrics, consisting ei ther of silica, alumina, zirconia, stannic or tungsten oxide or combinations of those oxides. because of their excessive porosity (up t.o 99%!) and t.heir huge internal floor, aerogels function in particular lively catalysts or as catalytic subst.rates, as adsorbents, fillers, reinforcement brokers, pigments and gellifying brokers. Silica aerogels as translucent or obvious superinsulating fillers in window platforms may possibly aid to significantly lessen thermal losses in home windows and to enhance the strength stability in passive sunlight structures. Aerogels even have fas cinating acoustic houses - the sound pace could be as little as a hundred m/s! The construction of aerogels begins with the managed conversion of a sol right into a gel: the expansion of clusters or polymer chains from a chemical resolution, the cross-linking of those fundamental entities and the formation of a coherent community - nonetheless embedded in a liquid.
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Extra info for Aerogels: Proceedings of the First International Symposium, Würzburg, Fed. Rep. of Germany September 23–25, 1985
Liquid CO seems to be the most practical choice. 00 per 50 lb. botne). Also, it has been successfully used in critical point drying of biological samples for scanning electron microscopy. Other fluids which seem attractive are the Freons 13, 23, and 116, but they are more expensive. 32 5. ,sample Characterization Optical transmission, light scattering, TEM, SEM, surface area, dimensional shrinkage, and rheological measurements were performed on alcogel and aerogel samples. Transmission spectra between the wavelengths 200 to 3000 nonometers were obtained from dried aerogels with a Perkin Elmer Lambda 9 UV/VIS/NIR spectrophotometer.
This is obviously due to the fact that the losses by scattering are higher for these last materials. 000 A region by Hg-porosimetry (the existent porosity below 200 A was not evaluated). 4~____,00~6____~OB, 100 r c: ~c, ~ ... " ~ ~~,,, " /' 20. 5 02 -J °E ~50 d t.. I- -;;e. I I I I I I I / ~ ...... 5) and of vitreous silica. After [9J 44 100r-----------~ I I o50 " ,. 4. Calculated from data of [9J 20% solutions contain a greater proportion of large pores which make them less translucent. A remarkable effect is observed when initial gels are prepared with ammonia as catalyst.
Recently, its application as a low refractive index, transparent material, in Cherenkov counters, has generated significant interest [3-6]. Its transparency, excellent thermal resistance, and selectable refractive index make it attractive for many other applications [7-10]. Our interest lies in its development as an insulating glazing material for high performance insulating windows. However, for the commercial manufacture of aerogels, the traditional production process requires improvement. There are two areas where these improvements are critical: 1) a replacement of the toxic starting material, Si(OCH3)4 by the cheaper and relatively non-toxic Si(OC 2H 5 )4; and 2) the development of a supercritical drying method to eliminate the need to cycle high-pressure equipment through large temperature changes.