By Bruno Palier
A protracted so long to Bismarck? is the 1st examine to supply an exhaustive comparative account of all welfare reforms in continental Europe in past times 3 a long time, protecting Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Slovakia, Spain, and Switzerland.
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Extra info for A Long Goodbye to Bismarck?: The Politics of Welfare Reform in Continental Europe (Amsterdam University Press - Changing Welfare States Series)
Thus, the large German welfare state may be typified as a truck steadily moving further into a cul-de-sac, hence, facing ever more limited opportunities to turn around and get a clear run again. 1 depicts the overall reform trajectory as a U-turn divided into three phases. Factually, the sequential process does not fit neatly for all social policy domains looked at in the following. There was some overlap, development was not always straightforward, and the modes of institutional change varied between policy areas.
2 Social Insurance Schemes: Institutional Features Social insurance schemes are the core of the Bismarckian welfare state. As with any other welfare state program, they can be analyzed along four dimensions (cf. Bonoli and Palier 1998). 3). (1) Starting with financing, the revenues of all social insurance schemes by definition stem mainly or completely from earnings-related contributions, unrelated to individual risk. They are equally divided between employers and employees. Contributions are levied up to certain earnings ceilings (higher for the unemployment and pension scheme) and above that no entitlements to cash benefits are earned.
From the interwar period for industrial workers, and for all professions after World War II, all of what are now called ‘old social risks’16 were progressively covered by compulsory social insurance schemes: old-age, invalidity, work accident , sickness and unemployment . Extra costs induced by having children were also compensated in some Continental European countries. Regarding the scope of application of these schemes, instead of integrating the whole population within one unique and universal scheme, BISMARCKIAN WELFARE SYSTEMS AS THEY WERE very often different occupational groups were eager to preserve or create their own schemes.