Download A Grammar of Wandala by Zygmunt Frajzyngier PDF

By Zygmunt Frajzyngier

Wandala is a hitherto undescribed crucial Chadic language spoken in Northern Cameroon and Northeastern Nigeria. The Grammar of Wandala describes, in a non-aprioristic procedure, phonology, morphology, syntax, and all practical domain names grammaticalized within the language. The grammatical constitution of Wandala is sort of diversified from the constitution of different Chadic languages defined so far in either the formal potential and the capabilities which have been grammaticalized. The grammar offers proofs for the postulated hypotheses touching on kinds and features. The grammar is written in a method available to linguists operating inside diversified theoretical frameworks.

The phonology is characterised through a wealthy consonantal procedure, a 3 vowel approach, and a tone method. The language has considerable vowel insertion principles and a vowel concord process. Vowel deletion marks phrase-internal place, and vowel-insertion marks phrase-final place. the 2 principles enable the parsing of the clause into materials. The language has 3 forms of reduplication of verbs, of which code aspectual and modal differences. The damaging paradigms of verbs vary from affirmative paradigms within the coding of subject.

The pronominal affixes and wide approach of verbal extensions code the grammatical and semantic relatives in the clause. Wandala has strange clausal constitution, in that during a pragmatically impartial verbal clause, there's just one nominal argument, both the topic or the article. those arguments can keep on with numerous elements. The grammatical function of that argument is coded via inflectional markers at the verb and so much apparently, on no matter what lexical or grammatical morpheme precedes the constituent. The markers of grammatical kinfolk additional to verbs are assorted for various sessions of verbs.

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The markers of directionality may occur even if the main verbs are dà ‘depart’ and sà ‘come from’. Verbs coding the manner of movement precede verbs coding directionality. Altrilocality indicates that the event happens at a place different from the place where subject is or will be. Altrilocality can be coded either from the point of view of the preceding place or from the point of view of the subsequent place. Altrilocality coding differs from the coding of directionality in that the markers of altrilocality, derived from the verbs dà ‘depart’ and sà ‘come from’, are first in the construction, and the other verbs are considered complements of the verbs coding altrilocality.

13 Verbless predication Verbless predications serve a variety of functions, whose only common characteristic is the absence of the verb. Locative verbless predication must have the locative predicator á. The form of the locative verbless predication is: S á (PREP) NP. Equational predication has the form NP NP, with the first NP being the subject. Attributive predication has property concepts preceding the subject. Property concepts have the root + a form preceding the subject even if their citation forms end in the vowel e.

This is followed by the description of syllables and syllabic constraints. The chapter concludes with the discussion of tone. 2. 1 The inventory of underlying consonants Wandala has a rather rich consonantal system, both in the underlying and in the phonetic inventory. 1). Glides are underlyingly consonants, as demonstrated further in this chapter. 1 plus the velar continuant x, palatal nasal ɲ, palatalized stops, palatalized fricatives and lateral continuants, glottalized consonants, and liquids, represented as b’, d’, g’, k’, f’, ɬ’, ɮ’ and l’, ɓ’, and ɗ‘.

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